Today in history
- United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) Established (1946)
The United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF)—now the United Nations Children's Fund—was founded in 1946 for the purpose of providing relief to children in countries devastated by World War II. After 1950, it turned to general children's welfare programs, winning the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1965. Today, it focuses on areas in which relatively small expenditures can have a significant impact. How did its famous "Trick-or-Treat for UNICEF" fundraising campaign begin? Discuss
- Imperial Japanese Navy Sinks Two British Warships (1941)
Japanese aggression in late 1941 prompted Britain to send two of their largest warships—HMS Prince of Wales and HMS Repulse—to the Pacific as a deterrent. However, war in the Pacific escalated with the bombing of Pearl Harbor on December 7. Three days later, Japanese forces destroyed the Prince of Wales and Repulse near Singapore. The warships were the first sunk by aircraft while at sea. How did British Prime Minister Winston Churchill react to the sinkings?
- The Subsequent Nuremberg Trials: Doctors' Trial Begins (1946)
The Doctors' Trial was the first of 12 post-World War II trials collectively called the "Subsequent Nuremberg Trials," which the US held in its occupation zone in Nuremberg, Germany. Of the 23 defendants, 20 were medical doctors, and they faced charges for war crimes that included experimenting on human subjects without their consent. The Nuremberg Code was thus established to protect the rights of humans participating in medical research. How many of the defendants received death sentences?